Pregnancy is an exciting but sometimes nerve-racking time for dog owners. Caring for a pregnant dog doesn’t end when the puppies are born. One concern is milk fever, a common condition in nursing mothers that can be life-threatening. What is milk fever in dogs, and how can you prevent it? We’ve got the essential information you need.

What is Milk Fever?

Milk fever in dogs, also known as canine eclampsia or lactational hypocalcemia, can develop in nursing mothers after giving birth. During lactation, calcium is transferred from the mother to her puppies through her milk. This process usually goes smoothly because the mother can access calcium from her diet and her body’s calcium reserves, such as her bones.

However, milk fever can arise when the mother’s milk production drains substantial amounts of calcium from her system, surpassing her ability to replenish it. This results in a life-threatening drop in blood calcium levels. Generally, milk fever tends to manifest within the first two to four weeks of lactation. However, it can also occur around the time of whelping, during pregnancy, and even up to six to eight weeks after the birth of a litter.

What causes milk fever in dogs?

milk fever in dogs

Milk fever primarily results from excessive calcium loss. However, several other factors can trigger and worsen the condition:

  • Inadequate diet: A poorly balanced diet, especially one lacking in calcium, can contribute to milk fever.
  • Excessive Calcium Supplementation: Overly generous calcium supplementation before giving birth can also be a cause.
  • High Milk Production: When cows produce a lot of milk, their bodies may struggle to meet the calcium demands necessary for milk production.
  • Hormonal Issues: Hormonal problems affecting the parathyroid gland can disrupt normal calcium levels.
  • Low Blood Albumin Levels: Insufficient levels of albumin in the blood can disrupt calcium transportation.
  • Canine Susceptibility: Certain dogs have a predisposition to producing milk too rapidly.

Symptoms of Milk Fever in Dogs

The signs and symptoms of milk fever in dogs include:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Drooling and Vomiting
  • Restlessness
  • Tremors
  • Difficulty standing
  • Elevated heart rate
  • Rapid breathing
  • Panting
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Uncoordinated movements

Treatment of Milk Fever in Dogs

If you observe any of the mentioned signs or suspect milk fever in your pregnant or nursing dog, immediate veterinary attention is necessary. Early treatment offers a high chance of recovery.
Take your dog to the vet and, upon arrival, they will conduct a blood test to confirm the diagnosis and assess blood calcium levels, along with any underlying issues. Treatment includes:

  • Administering calcium intravenously at a controlled rate while closely monitoring heart rhythms.
  • Providing intravenous fluids to address shock and dehydration.
  • Prescribing medication to manage seizures.
  • Use active cooling methods, especially if your pet’s body temperature is elevated.

In most instances, recovery occurs within hours following treatment, often requiring less than 12 hours of hospitalization. However, severe cases may necessitate extended hospital stays to prevent relapse. Your vet will also prescribe calcium supplements for home use, and you’ll need to hand-feed the puppies as part of their care.

How can you prevent your dog from milk fever?

milk fever in dogs

Preventing milk fever (eclampsia) in dogs is essential to ensure the well-being of both the mother and her puppies during the lactation period. Here are some key steps you can take to prevent milk fever in your dog:

Balanced Diet:

Provide your pregnant and lactating dog with balanced and high-quality commercial dog food specifically formulated for her life stage. These foods are designed to meet her increased nutritional requirements, including calcium. Avoid excessive calcium supplementation, as this can lead to imbalances.

Consult Your Veterinarian:

Consult with your veterinarian early in your dog’s pregnancy to determine her specific dietary needs. They can recommend the right type and amount of food to provide optimal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.

Regular Check-ups:

Schedule regular veterinary check-ups during your dog’s pregnancy and lactation to monitor her health and nutritional status. Your vet can make necessary adjustments to her diet and detect any potential issues early.

Controlled Calcium Supplementation:

If your veterinarian recommends calcium supplementation, make sure it’s administered under their guidance and with careful consideration of your dog’s individual needs. Excessive calcium supplementation can be as harmful as a deficiency.

Proper Weaning:

Start the weaning process gradually as the puppies grow and become less dependent on their mother’s milk. Reducing the demand for milk can help prevent calcium depletion in the mother.

Stress Reduction:

Minimize stress for your pregnant and lactating dog. Stress can negatively impact her overall health and potentially contribute to the development of milk fever. Provide a quiet, comfortable, and secure environment for her.


Make sure your dog always has access to clean and fresh water. Proper hydration is essential for overall health and milk production.

Observe for Signs:

Be vigilant for any signs of milk fever, such as muscle tremors, stiffness, weakness, disorientation, or seizures. If you notice any of these symptoms, contact your veterinarian immediately.

Separate Puppies During Feeding:

If you have multiple puppies, consider separating them during feeding times to avoid excessive competition for milk. This can help reduce the strain on the mother’s calcium reserves.

Supervision During Whelping:

Be present and monitor the whelping process to ensure that all puppies are nursing and latching properly. If you notice any issues, seek veterinary assistance.


In conclusion, milk fever in dogs results from low blood calcium levels, causing symptoms like muscle tremors and seizures. Quick veterinary intervention with calcium treatment is crucial for recovery. Preventive measures, such as proper nutrition and monitoring, can help avoid this serious condition.

Recognizing these symptoms early and seeking immediate veterinary attention is crucial for a successful treatment outcome. Treatment typically involves the administration of intravenous calcium to restore normal blood calcium levels. Additionally, supportive care such as fluids and medications to control seizures may be necessary.

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